La Pictorial Library of Bible Lands
incluye amplias notas con descripciones y explicaciones. Para poder
utilizar estas anotaciones en conjunto con las imágenes, hemos decidido
utilizar la sección de "Speaker's Notes" en los archivos PowerPoint.
Nota: Esto brinda la ventaja
adicional de poder ser utilizado a través de diferentes plataformas de
operación (p. ej., Mac), pero requiere que el usuario tenga una versión
completa del programa PowerPoint u otro
programa compatible (p. ej., la versión gratis de
Las anotaciones son el resultado de
muchos años de investigación y llegan a un total de
más de 2000 páginas. No todas las imágenes tienen anotaciones. En unos
casos solo la primera imagen de un grupo tiene una explicación ya que
las otras imágenes son del mismo tema. En otros casos, no se
hicieron anotaciones de ciertos temas por debido a la falta de tiempo.
muestran algunos ejemplos de las explicaciones históricas, geográficas y
arqueológicas dadas a las imágenes. Cabe aclarar que estas notas no son
el total que usted verá de un tema en particular, pero son las asociadas
con esta imagen específicamente. Por ejemplo, hay docenas de fotos de la
sinagoga de Capernaun pero hay notas diferentes para cada una de las
Captura de pantalla Juda y el Mar Muerto:
Interior of the Capernaum Synagogue
- Benches on which the elders sat lined the inside wall. There were probably
mats on the floor inside for people to sit on (Strange and Shanks 1983: 26).
- The architrave was originally a single piece of limestone, but it has been
- The corner columns are heart shaped.
- The synagogue in Capernaum is a typical Galilean synagogue.
- The doors face Jerusalem and the worshippers prayed in that direction. The
Torah must have been wheeled around to the door area (see the inscription
found with Torah on a cart). Later synagogues have doors on the opposite side
Solomonic Gate at Megiddo
The excavators of Megiddo identified a six-chambered
gate with the reign of Solomon (half of the gatehouse was removed in
excavations). Because similar ones have been found at Gezer and Hazor,
and because the Bible states that Solomon fortified these three cities (1
Ki 9:15), it was concluded that these were all built under the
administration of Solomon.
More recently scholars have disputed this
identification, in particular that of the Megiddo gate. They argue that
the “Solomonic Gate” is in fact connected to a solid offset-inset wall.
This solid wall clearly runs above buildings from the time of Solomon,
thus demanding a post-Solomonic date for the wall. If the wall was built
at the same time as the gate, the gate must therefore be later than the
time of Solomon.
Yadin believed that there was an earlier (casemate)
wall that was connected to the gate. Many scholars today reject the
identification of this structure as a casemate wall.
If the conclusion is adopted that the gate and wall
is post-Solomonic, then it appears that the city was not fortified during
the reign of Solomon, apparently contradicting 1 Kings 9:15. There is
nothing in the text of 1 Kings 9:15 to indicate that this passage was
written later to glorify Solomon. More likely, the city was fortified
during the reign of Solomon.
After the time of Solomon and Ahab, the middle
guardroom of the gate was filled in and another gate built above it.
The Dome of the Rock
- The inner dome of the Dome of the Rock is original and is made of
- The structure had a lead dome from 691 to 1965.
- The oxidized copper dome, which looks like gold, was installed by King
Ibn Saud in 1965. This was one of the things done in reaction to the
Pope’s visit in 1964.
- The copper dome was replaced by King Hussein (with money from Saudi
Arabia) in the 1990s with one of pure gold, because the existing one was
rusting and needed to be replaced. “In 1994 a new gold-plated exterior
dome, weighing a total of 80 kilograms [180 lbs.], was installed at a cost
of $15,000,000. The plating is not more than .0023 mm thick, and the sheen
of the gold was slightly muted during the plating so that the dome would
not blind anyone gazing upon it” (Meiron 1999: 154).
- Sihon was defeated “from the Arnon to the Jabbok” (Num 21:24).
- In general, Reuben and Gad settled south of the Jabbok, as far as the
Arnon, and half of Manasseh settled north of the Jabbok (Deut 3:12-17;
Josh 13:31). The Gadites, however, seem to be found wherever there is
Israelite settlement in the Transjordan, including in the area north of
the Jabbok River.
- The Jabbok River split Upper Gilead in two, thus the references to
“half Gilead” (Josh 12:2, 5).
The Philistines depicted at Medinet Habu
- The Philistines are known by their feather head dress.
- The Philistines can be recognized because of their use of swan
decorations, two edged swords, spears, and rounded shields. The Egyptians
on the other hand, used sickle swords and tombstone shaped shields.
- Philistine women and children are shown in ox-driven carts, indicating
that the Sea Peoples were not only military invaders, but migrants.
- The majority of the Sea Peoples are clean-shaven, but a few
Philistines are depicted with beards.
The Great Theater of Ephesus
The Great Theater of Ephesus was an important part of city
life in Ephesus being on the route of the Artemis procession. After its
completion by the Romans it seated 25,000 people. The existence of the
theater can only be verified after 100 B.C. but it is likely it began in 133
B.C. with the establishment of the province of Asia. It most likely went
through several stages of enlargement which were completed by 262 A.D. when
part of the theater collapsed in an earthquake.
Acts 19:29, 34b; 20:1 (KJV) “And the whole city was filled
with confusion: and having caught Gaius and Aristarchus, men of Macedonia,
Paul's companions in travel, they rushed with one accord into the theatre. .
. all with one voice about the space of two hours cried out, Great is Diana
of the Ephesians. . . And after the uproar was ceased, Paul called unto him
the disciples, and embraced them, and departed for to go into Macedonia.”
Bema at Corinth
The Roman tribunal where Paul was dragged before Gallio
has been uncovered in the center of the agora. This was the bema, where
Roman officials would appear before the public. An inscription mentioning
riots in Achaia and Gallio’s name, from which we are able to date Gallio’s
proconsulship to between 51 and 52 A.D., was found in Delphi. A church was
built atop the bema in Christian times.
Acts 18:12 (KJV) “And when Gallio was the deputy of Achaia, the Jews made
insurrection with one accord against Paul, and brought him to the judgment
Tyre, al-Mina site, Roman agora
Tyre in the New Testament
Some people from the area of Tyre came to hear the
preaching of Jesus (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17).
Jesus sought refuge from the Jewish crowds in the
vicinity of Tyre (Matt 15:21; Mark 7:24).
Jesus claimed that if the miracles performed in Chorazin
and Bethsaida and been performed in Tyre and Sidon, the two pagan cities
would have repented (Matt 11:21-22; Luke 10:13-14).
Herod Agrippa I died shortly after making peace with the
people of Tyre and Sidon (Acts 12:20).
Paul spent a week in the city of Tyre on the return from
his third missionary journey. The believers in the city urged Paul not
to continue on to Jerusalem (Acts 21:3-7).